Behavior is based on perception and emotions. It is not adult or fair but it is life. When the employee feels the organization has not treated them fairly or the management is behaving badly it will affect the employee’s sense of justice.
Landy and Conte (2010) define three types of justice that are important to the workplace.
• Distributive justice- perceived fairness of an outcome to employees within an organization (p.503)
• Procedural justice- process or procedure by which rewards are distributed (p.504)
• Interactional justice- Sensitivity of how delicate situations are treated and if the employee feels respected by the employer (p.506)
The team members have a trust in the organization based on their personal belief system that the organization will behave in a certain way. When the employee has an expectation (trust) that the employer will honor certain obligations (justice) and the employer does not behave as the employee expected (conflict) then the trust on the employees side is damaged by unmet expectations and the employee responds accordingly. Landy & Conte, (2010)
The organization has violated the trust of some of the team members and having a difficult time rebuilding that relationship. When management noticed the raise in sick leave and workers, comp claims the time for intervention was the importance of feedback from management when trust in the organization is in danger of suffering damage. Hassan, Semerciöz and Aksel (2012) discuss the importance on the feedback being clear and concise so the employee understands what happen and why. Organizations can also improve trust with employees by empowering them by allowing autonomy, choice and responsibility (Hassan, Toylan, Semerciöz, and Aksel, 2012).
Perception whether accurate or not is pivotal to the success of the team Authors Hecth,Allen,Klammer and Kelly(2002) used social cognitive theory and goal setting theory as the foundation of how group potency is impacted by group belief, ability and performance. Social cognitive theory emphasis is placed on self- efficacy.(Hecth et al 2002) Goal setting theory focus is on motivation and commitment of an individual to meet the goal. Researchers have found these two theories lend well to group behaviors (.Hecth, 2002)
Group potency is the collective belief of the group that they can be effective (Hecth, 2002) this behavior is missing in our study group because some members of the team feel that there is discrimination toward some of the team members. The Protype theory can be applied to test if the perceived mistreatment by the employee is based on team members belief system, or has the manager violated the norms of social responsibilities(Harris, Lievens, and Van Hoye, 2004) The self-proclaimed out group feel they are discriminated against by both management and the in group.
Organization Justice Theory can help examine the procedural, informational interpersonal, and distributive view of the treatment the out-group receives at the hands of the in-group and management to the point they use their sick leave , and workers comp to stand up to unjust working conditions. Harris, Lievens, and Van Hoye, 2004
The second theory is called Organization Justice Theory. This theory uses the procedural, informational, interpersonal and distributive fairness as perceived though the eyes of the employee (Harris, Lievens, and Van Hoye, 2004). Landy and Conte (2010) speaks of the Ludlow massacre. The conflict was between miners and owners for better working conditions. The strike had lasted 15 months and the owners called in the National Guard to “restore order” (p.499). Many people lost their lives that day including women and children. The miners were willing to die for what they believed to be unjust working conditions.
Many things have changed since 1915, but the makeup of the fragility of the human psyche has not. In New York yesterday a man who was laid off 2 years ago returned and killed a coworker he had a conflict filled relationship with and blamed him for being laid off.
Kodak laid off 10,000 employees. What did not make the news was how Kodak handled that lay off. They paid the employees a year’s salary, and then the layoff package kicked in. They brought in psychologist to help people adjust, paid 5,000 to each person for retraining to start over and offered early retirement to others.
Harris, M. M., Lievens, F., & van Hoye, G. (2004). “I think they discriminated against me”: using Prototype Theory and Organizational Justice Theory for understanding perceived discrimination in selection and promotion situations. International Journal of Selection & Assessment, 12(1/2), 54-65. doi:10.1111/j.0965-075X.2004.00263.x
Hassan, M., Toylan, N., Semerciöz, F., & Aksel, I. (2012). Interpersonal Trust and its role in organizations. International Business Research, 5(8), 33-39. doi:10.5539/ibr.v5n8p33
Landy, F. J., & Conte, J. M. (2010). Work in the 21st century: An introduction to industrial and organizational psychology (3rd Ed.).Hoboken, NJ: Wiley-Blackwell